Michigan must change carry concealed permits to conform to the Michigan Constitution of 1963 Article I, Section 6
Secretary of the Treasury is an employee of the International Monetary Fund ( IMF, an independent foreign corporation ) and "Receiver" in the National Bankruptcy ( See. Reorg. Plan No. 26, 5 USCA 903, Public Law 94-564 ). US District Court Judges are immune from civil torts and are members of an "independent judiciary" paid by [foreign] IMF-controlled Treasury Department. The Civil Service Commission suspended the loyalty oath ( see: the Stewart Case, 1970 ) for its federal employees and many agencies have transferred allegiance to the UN through "Service Agreements" and "Memorandums of Understanding" (MOUs). The US Marshall's' Oath to the Constitution under 28 USC 563 was deleted (Congressional Record, H7935, 9/22/66 - House) and subverted to INTERPOL et ed, by UN mandate 22 USC 263(A) .
SUBVERSION OF THE CONSTITUTION BY INTERNATIONAL TREATY: Passage by Congress of unlawful ( i.e., under Color of Law ) legislation designed to overturn the Constitution. The following list contains highlights from US Legislative History. a. The Federal Reserve Act 1913 abrogated Article 1, Sec. 8, clauses 5 & 6 b. HJ Res.. 192 ( 1933 ) - suspended the Gold Standard and Gold Clause. c. Coinage Act of 1965 - Debased the specie coin [Article 1 Sec. 10 clause] d. PL 94-564 ( 1971 ) - removed convertibility of US dollar into gold. e. Declaration of INTER dependence ( 1976 ) - nullified national spirit and purpose. Note this is the international version of the 1930's domestic Declaration of Governmental Interdependence by the Governors of States once united in freedom and independence. f. PL 95-147 ( 1977 ) - declared insolvency.. h. UN Covenant on Civil and Political Rights ( 1992 ) - set aside the Bill of Rights.. The net effect of these seditious legislative changes has been to overthrow the Natural Spiritual, and Common Law heritage of a once Great Republic.
UNILATERAL DISARMAMENT: The creation of an arms Control and Disarmament Agency under PL 97-297 and described in State Dept. Paper 7277. along with the launch a "military enforcement action" to confiscate firearms from all law abiding citizens.
INTERPOL CONNECTION, Lyons, France In 1988, INTERPOL changed their constitution so they could investigate anyone classified as a "Terrorist". Also in 1988, the U.S. Marshal's service was TRANSFERRED to use of the UN Secretary General under the Omnibus Crime Control Act. They have no oath or allegiance to the U.S.A. Article 6 of the Constitution for the United States of America and the statuary provisions thereto, require an Oath of Allegiance to OUR Constitution. ( Research: CWC, Puyallup, Washington, Fax: 206-874-1456 )
An Ad Hoc Committee
P.O. Box 1776 Hanford, California 93232
California State Senator
Dear Senator Knight:
Being aware of the value of your time, and how much we have to cover in this short visit, we thought it best to outline what has caused the need for this appointment.
This appointment was made several weeks before the tragedy struck on the east coast, but it has not changed anything that we wish to discuss. Even though the World Trade Center and Pentagon disaster has claimed so much of our attention, it cannot diminish the urgency of this visit nor reduce the injustices that have impelled us to seek your counsel and assistance. As a matter of fact, the east coast tragedy event tends to intensify the danger and the jeopardy facing us.
You may wish to know the problems that we initially intended to address, listed very briefly below, which certain political factions, operating within our government, have been advancing for many years:
1. To divest us of the use of our national armed forces by passing so-called “laws”, and purported treaties, and to transfer our total armed forces on a permanent basis to the United Nations Organization to build itself a world army that “no nation can challenge”, with all future authority under foreign commanders most of which are communists; (Proof: P.L. 87-297, P.L. 101-216, State Dept. Publication 7277, Helmet Diagram, Blueprint for the Peace Race, Zonal Inspection, P.D.D. 25, White House Backs Standby U.N. Army, the World Troop Map.);
2. To prohibit all of our law-abiding citizens from owning any firearms whatsoever required under the “United States Program for General and Complete Disarmament In a Peaceful World”; (Proof: P.L. 87-297, P.L. 101-216, State Dept. Publication 7277, U.N. General and Complete Disarmament Resolutions, Blueprint for the Peace Race, Zonal Inspection, P.D.D. 25, “United Nations is Taking Control of U.S. Guns Under Global Gun Plan”, Data Source Report: Annexes to State Dept. Pub. 7277.);
3. To surrender control of U.S. civilian police under U.N. command so the U.N. may operate its desired “rapid response mechanism”, and conduct exchanges of our American police with police from communist countries; (Proof: Militarization of Civilian Law Enforcement Under Unified Command with Security Council Press Release, Soviet American Police Exchange Program.);
4. To collapse the American system of government: a deliberate plan to begin the disintegration of our Constitutional government; (Proof: “The Politics of Change in Local Government Reform” and the “El Dorado County Resolution opposing the Governor’s Plan to Collapse our Government”, bankruptcy of the public utilities supplying gas and electricity, stock market drops and the high unemployment rolls, imbalance of trade, closures of our steel industry, increasing inflation and national debt growth, and now engineered foreign disruption of the airlines and other modes of travel, plus failure to provide proper foreign policy to insure against foreign attacks, etc.);
5. To abolish our states and counties; (Proof: 10 federal regions and sub-regions called multi-jurisdictional agencies, and other sub-state regional arrangements, Lake Tahoe prototype for elimination of borders, International “Agencies” replacing elected representation - “And Not a Shot is Fired” a report by John Howland Snow, Inter-state compacts that would eliminate the states entirely, “Do we need the States?”, “Is it time to abolish the states?”, Twilight of the States, and “Brown seeks to abolish local governments”.);
6. To build a ‘new world order’ and national borders are eliminated; (Proof: “The Disunited United States”, the Gomberg Map produced before Pearl Harbor in October 1941, George Bush at the Podium calling for a “new world order”, World Troop Map.);
7. To put us under a “new social and economic order” so that we are dependent upon communist countries for our daily essentials; (Proof: Treaty No. 97-19 an international “constitution” signed by President Reagan which establishes a world economic and social order, NAFTA, GATT, CARA, etc.);
8. To turn our land, parks, rivers, wetlands and other farmer’s land, forests, and national monuments under permanent custody of the U.N.; (Proof: World Heritage Protection of U.S. natural resources and historical landmarks, U.N. Land policy, etc.); and,
9. To build the United Nations “internal security force”; (Proof: State Dept. Document 7277, Courts-Martial Manual already prepared for operation of the U.S. under a military government, Garden Plot and other plans for the elimination of dissenters, Civil Emergency Management Course (Manual) which has been used to teach on how to take over civilian government and turn it into military government.).
Senator Knight, please notice that these are all things that have already happened! We are not predicting -- these things are already in effect in various degrees! We don’t have to prove “intent”. Intent has already been expressed by the government’s own endorsement . All we need to do is prove capability. And that, too, is easy! They have the capability to bring all these evil things into conformity! The future of the republic of the United States of America lies ahead: that of a transformed militarized internationalized government! The “ingredients” are there for it, but that is not what we want!
Left-wing think-tanks and law-writing factories have set into motion massive programs and laws that are already gradually disintegrating the energy and integrity of the American fabric of government. At the same time, they have dumbed down many Americans in an attempt to paralyze their resistance and awareness of what is happening to them. The evidence of this is irrefutable!
Senator, scores of years ago, we lost out on the use of the vote! Whenever we elected public officials to represent us, we sent them off under oath and issued them a copy of the Constitution as their guide and rule book, yet we now witness them violating their oath and disregarding the limits of power we have delegated. Meanwhile, none of these violators, neither federal or state, are being held accountable for any of their aberrations or their many, many, continual seditious acts!
At the polls we have been asked so many times to choose from the lesser of two evils: elections are between “twiddle-dee” and “tweedle-dumb”. The oath was meant to keep those kinds of people out of office.
So many times, Senator, our good legislators have proven to us that they cannot get the voting support necessary to stop passage of these rebellious and ‘mutinous’ laws that are being forced upon us, let alone roll back those laws that are straining the patience of the people. This shows us that you, too, have lost out in the voting process! Even your vote has been debased by the stacking of the statehouse seats with people who are socialists and who do not intend to adhere to the oath of office. The oath is a contract -- no less! Since this is the case, why has the legislature passed all these anti-Second Amendment gun bills (even signed by the governor) that violate the oath, and continue to chip away at our right to arms? This is ruining us!
You cannot demonize guns and disable the people without destroying the very mechanisms that defend the state!
Our nation’s legislatures are so stacked with Rhodes Scholars, Progressive Caucus members, socialists, and avowed communitarians that good legislators don’t have a chance to stop them if they depend solely upon the voting process! Another avenue of defense has to be sought.
Those who vote against Constitutional law should be forced to step down. They have broken their oath! The oath is a sacred contract! They have broken their sacred contract! They are disqualified to hold an office! The founding fathers left us two main things to guard our liberty: The Second Amendment and the Oath of Office!
Such legislators are just not worth their salaries! We, Californians have not been getting what we paid for! They must be told to step down, and make room for someone who can keep to the oath. (Proof: Major Owens has carried a bill to repeal the Second Amendment! The U.N. is grabbing our land, rivers, our guns, destroying our system, and taking control of the minds of our children under UNESCO. The Panama Canal has fallen into the hands of the Communist Chinese! The Open Skies Treaty allows enemies of our country to fly over our cities. The Chinese and Russian Communists now hold ‘most favored nation status’ and our taxes are used to financially beef them up! NAFTA is destroying our economy. P.L. 87-297, P.L. 101-216, State Dept. Publication 7277, Helmet Diagram, Blueprint for the Peace Race, Zonal Inspection, P.D.D. 25 are destroying our national defense. Refer to: White House Backs Standby U.N. Army, and the World Troop Map.)
On September 11, 2001 we were seriously attacked! Our federal and state public officials have destroyed our ability to protect our homes, our families, our property, our state, and our Bill of Rights! These are all matters that the State must address. On the one hand, we are told to act normal and to “go about our daily lives as usual” “get on airplanes” “don’t worry -- show them that Americans are not afraid.” On the other hand, we are told that the Arabs may use chemical or biological warfare on us, that they could burst the dams, or blow up the bridges (includes California); yet, our borders are still loose, left open to any terrorist who may enter our country!
Meanwhile, our best fighters depart our land for foreign shores, and the California State legislators try to pass bills, like A.B. 566 (Koretz) to establish a multi-million “assault weapons” turn-in program (a gun surrender agency). It also mounts an advertising campaign that would attempt to discourage the public from owning any firearms -- not just (so-called) “assault weapons”!
We checked with the Immigration Service on September 25, 2001 and were told that our national borders are still not closed, 14 days after the September 11, 2001 attack! The INS said, “Yes, the borders have been tightened up, but they can still come over.” Arabs, Chinese, etc. are on our northern border, and the southern border is loaded with terrorist training camps. Someone has to answer for this! Why is it that terrorists have been allowed for so long to enter our open borders? Why is it that under the Domestic Terrorism Act, the people who are most loyal to the country and who wish to exercise their responsibility as members of the militia to defend the security of the state are being classed as “terrorists”? (Proof: Sheriff Painter warned of terrorist camps years ago that were getting ready to strike.)
New terrorism laws are focusing on destruction of the people who constitute what was formerly known as the “enrolled” militia: the whole people, the citizen soldiers. (Refer to: California State Militia Act of 1862 relating to the enrolled militia of the whole people. “Say!! Just WHO are the real anti-government extremists?” How the Dictionaries Used to Define the Militia, Instruction page from an enrolled militia roll book kept by the Assessor: The Missing Link.)
If we had kept up the enrolled militia of the whole people, as an integral part of local government, we could have activated all of our defenses and secured this nation within 24 hours or less after an attack such as we sustained under the Arabs.
Everything in this state and nation could have been locked down, military installations secured, key buildings, bridges, dams guarded, our skies patrolled, block wardens established, and our borders made impenetrable. Possibly even in 5 hours, the nation’s tight defense could have been put into action, state after state, in full readiness. At the onset of an alarm, the governor would have alerted both the organized militia (State Guard) and the enrolled militia of the whole people (the citizen-soldiers). The Adjutant-general and the Brigadier-general of the enrolled militia could have notified all of the ranks below them within their jurisdiction. This constitutes a great defense force.
You see, Senator, we who are citizen soldiers, already have a proper homeland defense system, but we are not allowed to use it! As it is, we have been putting a strain on the civilian law enforcement systems for things that the citizens can do, and should be doing! We have already been told that the police are not obligated to protect us! We must be part of the state’s defense.
Senator Knight, was there ever a more urgent time than now to re-instate the enrolled militia system? Or would government have it, that in times like these, our people should huddle in fear, inexperienced, untrained, and totally disarmed -- by our own paid representatives?
Now more of our fighting men are being shipped overseas and we are being left inadequately defended, wide open for more attacks. Defense Secretary Rumsfeld wants to have another big round of base closings “to save money”! Is this the way to run a republic -- not to even mention a key border state like California? Rumsfeld needs to check into why this country’s policies have made us so hated that we must now be brutally attacked.
The weak condition we are in today against foreign attacks proves that we are to blame for not maintaining the Constitutional enrolled militia of the whole people. In the face of current events, it is laughable to think such bills as A.B. 566 (Koretz), and others like it, are sitting, and being considered for passage, in our California State Legislature -- but it hurts too much to laugh! Once a country becomes weakened, its enemies seize upon the opportunity to gang up, unite their strength, and overtake it. Our weakness has invited these troubles!
Those of us who have spent lots of years watching these strange laws being passed, can now easily see that the “Homeland Defense” (the cabinet position now assigned to Governor Tom Ridge of Pennsylvania) structures in all actuality, the internal security force (the one sufficient enough to preserve order) as required by the general and complete disarmament law. (Refer: State Dept. Publication No. 7277 -- bottom of Page 3.).
It seems most likely that what they are going about now is bringing everything into accord, concentrating everything under one cabinet officer, the whole computerized intelligence network, all the way from the F.B.I. and the federal attorney-general down to the local police -- all under one czar! In other words, Senator, this emergency is being used to develop internal controls for the “new world order” system. On the federal level, one senator has already spoken of enacting the ‘smart card’ for identification. Under the “Homeland Defense” spontaneous militias that have formed to secure the state will be classified as ‘terrorists’! Senator, can we allow this to happen?
The Arab attack has created an excuse for a top-to-bottom military government to replace our republic under the New World Order. (Proof: State Dept. Publication 7277 entitled “The United States Program for General and Complete Disarmament in a Peaceful World” Page 3, Helmet Diagram, Blueprint for the Peace Race Page 2 Sec. B.)
Despite how much we, as the awakened people in the private sector know of these rebellious acts, and despite how much experience we have had in peacefully expressing our opposition, we alone are not able to stop these anti-gun laws and treaties that are destroying our republic because the general public does not want to believe that our government would participate in such dreadful plans, acts, laws, programs, and ill-conceived treaties as we have covered so far here in this letter.
In other words, the vast majority of the people want to believe that we have no basis for the apprehension we express, solely because no newspaper, radio or other media reports on these unlawful acts; so the public assumes that what we say, can’t be true! There are no significant amount of state or federal public officials expressing objections.
Because of this, when we, in the public sector, try to tell others what is happening within the government, we get nowhere and are stymied. The people take no action to protect their interests and liberties. Because of news censorship, we lack necessary credibility! We cannot get anywhere without your help!
If the same things we are exposing were being told to the people by a significant number of public officials in a group, we would darn soon establish credibility! We can not get public media co-operation to report what is happening, but public officials would get media attention, especially if they get a large enough group together and “make the news”.
There is only one way out of this predicament. The key to saving the State of California is first to achieve credibility, but to acquire credibility, we must get help from our good government officials, just like you, Senator Knight. This lack has us boondoggled!
Word of concentration camps being assembled may be laughed at, but it does deserve consideration. History documents beguiling situations like ours happening before! When revolutions occur and meet their necessary criteria, and ‘takeovers’ happen, assassinations of those opposed to it, do occur. Whole families are picked up and killed. It has happened in Germany, Cuba, Cambodia, China, Russia, etc.
We can expect that all who are loyal to our rightful government and their families will be killed. We have a short time frame in which to prevent this from happening here as the New World Order takes full charge. We will come to detest the time we had wasted in which some method could have been worked out to stop this on-coming purge. As “dissenters” we will be listed as “terrorists”. Silence is not golden in these times. There will be no chance that the New World Order will allow us to turn to conservative legislators to be our heroes! Those would-be conservative legislators will be the first ones called up for eradication. Possibly their whole families will be called up. It has to be considered and such plans must be annulled well in advance.
There has to be a whistle blown. What is passing for “law” is not “law”! There has to be a moratorium placed on all gun bills and the people must be allowed to have the best of defensive weapons. The enrolled militia must be reinstated. The Second Amendment must be enforced.
There are two good pieces of legislation waiting to be passed that does these things, and we submit both to you today for recognition. One is called the Hanford Pro-gun Legislation and the other is legislation to restore the enrolled militia system. While Senator Don Rogers was in office, he carried the Hanford Pro-gun Legislation for at least 6 years but he could not get it passed out of the first Committee (Judiciary) because Senator Roberti and Senator Lockyer kept it locked up. It was a violation of their oath of office not to defend the Second Amendment.
We would like to have you re-introduce it with as many co-authors as possible. This legislation invokes the power of the Second Amendment, delivers a clarification of the Second Amendment, rises above the power of the courts to (mis) “interpret” what is already clear-cut existing law, and enforces it in the State of California.
At one time the Constitution of the State of California held a principle that the organized militia (the state guard) could not serve under any flag except that of the United States or the State of California. The proposed militia legislation would also restore that principle in our California State Constitution.
Neither of these two pieces of proposed legislation bring in new law! Both only tell what laws already exist but have been denied and ignored by the majority of those public officials now in office.
We need a group of good senators and assemblymen to gather together and talk loud enough and hard enough to get the media to broadcast this new movement so that the other states will hear and have their courageous legislators follow our lead. Victory is no longer possible by sitting and voting against bad bills. Unless we get help from our elected officials, this republic is a thing of the past! Much sorrow is ahead and many millions of American people will be killed.
Senator Knight, we chose you as the first person actively holding a position in government to plead to -- for the kind of help we require. Please take time to go over this letter again and review the attachments. We will expect you to talk this over with those active representatives you trust in our statehouse.
Senator Knight, we know that you have an outstanding record of 32 years of outstanding flying for the U. S. Air Force, and you are listed in the National Aviation Hall of Fame in Dayton, Ohio. Today, we beg of you to take action once again to help your country in its time of greatest need.
IN DEFENSE OF THE STATE
THE UNITED STATES PROGRAM
FOR GENERAL AND COMPLETE DISARMAMENT
IN A PEACEFUL WORLD
DEPARTMENT OF STATE
DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLICATION 7277
Disarmament Series 5
Released September 1961
Office of Public Services
BUREAU OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government
Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. - Price 15 cents
The revolutionary development of modern weapons within a world divided by serious ideological differences has produced a crisis in human history. In order to overcome the danger of nuclear war now confronting mankind, the United States has introduced, at the Sixteenth General Assembly of the United Nations, a Program for General and Complete Disarmament in a Peaceful World.
This new program provides for the progressive reduction of the war-making capabilities of nations and the simultaneous strengthening of international institutions to settle disputes and maintain the peace. It sets forth a series of comprehensive measures which can and should be taken in order to bring about a world in which there will be freedom from war and security for all states. It is based on three principles deemed essential to the achievement of practical progress in the disarmament field:
First, there must be immediate disarmament action:
A strenuous and uninterrupted effort must be made toward the goal of general and complete disarmament; at the same time, it is important that specific measures be put into effect as soon as possible.
Second, all disarmament obligations must be subject to effective international controls:
The control organization must have the manpower, facilities, and effectiveness to assure that limitations or reductions take place as agreed. It must also be able to certify to all states that retained forces and armaments do not exceed those permitted at any stage of the disarmament process.
Third, adequate peace-keeping machinery must be established:
There is an inseparable relationship between the scaling down of national armaments on the one hand and the building up of international peace-keeping machinery and institutions on the other. Nations are unlikely to shed their means of self-protection in the absence of alternative ways to safeguard their legitimate interests. This can only be achieved through the progressive strengthening of international institutions under the United Nations and by creating a United Nations Peace Force to enforce the peace as the disarmament process proceeds.
There follows a summary of the principal provisions of the United States Program for General and Complete Disarmament in a Peaceful World. The full text of the program is contained in an appendix to this pamphlet.
FREEDOM FROM WAR
THE UNITED STATES PROGRAM
FOR GENERAL AND COMPLETE DISARMAMENT
IN A PEACEFUL WORLD
DISARMAMENT GOAL AND OBJECTIVES
The overall goal of the United States is a free, secure, and peaceful world of independent states adhering to common standards of justice and international conduct and subjecting the use of force to the rule of law; a world which has achieved general and complete disarmament under effective international control; and a world in which adjustment to change takes place in accordance with the principles of the United Nations.
In order to make possible the achievement of that goal, the program sets forth the following specific objectives toward which nations should direct their efforts:
• The disbanding of all national armed forces and the prohibition of their reestablishment in any form whatsoever other than those required to preserve internal order and for contributions to a United Nations Peace Force;
• The elimination from national arsenals of all armaments, including all weapons of mass destruction and the means for their delivery, other than those required for a United Nations Peace Force and for maintaining internal order;
• The institution of effective means for the enforcement of international agreements, for the settlement of disputes, and for the maintenance of peace in accordance with the principles of the United Nations;
• The establishment and effective operation of an International Disarmament Organization within the framework of the United Nations to insure compliance at all times with all disarmament obligations.
TASKS OF NEGOTIATING STATES
The negotiating states are called upon to develop the program into a detailed plan for general and complete disarmament and to continue their efforts without interruption until the whole program has been achieved. To this end, they are to seek the widest possible area of agreement at the earliest possible date. At the same time, and without prejudice to progress on the disarmament program, they are to seek agreement on those immediate measures that would contribute to the common security of nations and that could facilitate and form part of the total program.
The program sets forth a series of general principles to guide the negotiating states in their work. These make clear that:
• As states relinquish their arms, the United Nations must be progressively strengthened in order to improve its capacity to assure international security and the peaceful settlement of disputes;
• Disarmament must proceed as rapidly as possible, until it is completed, in stages containing balanced, phased, and safeguarded measures;
• Each measure and stage should be carried out in an agreed period of time, with transition from one stage to the next to take place as soon as all measures in the preceding stage have been carried out and verified and as soon as necessary arrangements for verification of the next stage have been made;
• Inspection and verification must establish both that nations carry out scheduled limitations or reductions and that they do not retain armed forces and armaments in excess of those permitted at any stage of the disarmament process; and
• Disarmament must take place in a manner that will not affect adversely the security of any state.
The program provides for progressive disarmament steps to take place in three stages and for the simultaneous strengthening of international institutions.
The first stage contains measures which would significantly reduce the capabilities of nations to wage aggressive war. Implementation of this stage would mean that:
* The nuclear threat would be reduced:
All states would have adhered to a treaty effectively prohibiting the testing of nuclear weapons.
The production of fissionable materials for use in weapons would be stopped and quantities of such materials from past production would be converted to non-weapons uses.
States owning nuclear weapons would not relinquish control of such weapons to any nation not owning them and would not transmit to any such nation information or material necessary for their manufacture.
States not owning nuclear weapons would not manufacture them or attempt to obtain control of such weapons belonging to other states.
A Commission of Experts would be established to report on the feasibility and means for the verified reduction and eventual elimination of nuclear weapons stockpiles.
* Strategic delivery vehicles would be reduced:
Strategic nuclear weapons delivery vehicles of specified categories and weapons designed to counter such vehicles would be reduced to agreed levels by equitable and balanced steps; their production would be discontinued or limited; their testing would be limited or halted.
* Arms and armed forces would be reduced:
The armed forces of the United States and the Soviet Union would be limited to 2.I million men each (with appropriate levels not exceeding that amount for other militarily significant states); levels of armaments would be correspondingly reduced and their production would be limited.
An Experts Commission would be established to examine and report on the feasibility and means of accomplishing verifiable reduction and eventual elimination of all chemical, biological and radiological weapons.
* Peaceful use of outer space would be promoted:
The placing in orbit or stationing in outer space of weapons capable of producing mass destruction would be prohibited.
States would give advance notification of space vehicle and missile launchings.
* U.N. peace-keeping powers would be strengthened:
Measures would be taken to develop and strengthen United Nations arrangementS for arbitration, for the development of international law, and for the establishment in Stage II of a permanent U.N. Peace Force.
* An International Disarmament Organization would be established for effective verification of the disarmament program:
Its functions would be expanded progressively as disarmament proceeds.
It would certify to all states that agreed reductions have taken place and that retained forces and armaments do not exceed permitted levels.
It would determine the transition from one stage to the next.
* States would be committed to other measures to reduce international tension and to protect against the chance of war by accident, miscalculation, or surprise attack:
States would be committed to refrain from the threat or use of any type of armed force contrary to the principles of the U.N. Charter and to refrain from indirect aggression and subversion against any country.
A U.N. peace observation group would be available to investigate any situation which might constitute a threat to or breach of the peace.
States would be committed to give advance notice of major military movements which might cause alarm; observation posts would be established to report on concentrations and movements of military forces.
The second stage contains a series of measures which would bring within sight a world in which there would be freedom from war. Implementation of all measures in the second stage would mean:
• Further substantial reductions in the armed forces, armaments, and military establishments of states, including strategic nuclear weapons delivery vehicles and countering weapons;
• Further development of methods for the peaceful settlement of disputes under the United Nations;
• Establishment of a permanent international peace force within the United Nations;
• Depending on the findings of an Experts Commission, a halt in the production of chemical, bacteriological and radiological weapons and a reduction of existing stocks or their conversion to peaceful uses;
• On the basis of the findings of an Experts Commission, a reduction of stocks of nuclear weapons;
• The dismantling or the conversion to peaceful uses of certain military bases and facilities wherever located; and
• The strengthening and enlargement of the International Disarmament Organization to enable it to verify the steps taken in Stage II and to determine the transition to Stage III.
During the third stage of the program, the states of the world, building on the experience and confidence gained in successfully implementing the measures of the first two stages, would take final steps toward the goal of a world in which:
• States would retain only those forces, non-nuclear armaments, and establishments required for the purpose of maintaining internal order; they would also support and provide agreed manpower for a U.N. Peace Force.
• The U.N. Peace Force, equipped with agreed types and quantities of armaments, would be fully functioning.
• The manufacture of armaments would be prohibited except for those of agreed types and quantities to be used by the U.N. Peace Force and those required to maintain internal order. All other armaments would be destroyed or converted to peaceful purposes.
• The peace-keeping capabilities of the United Nations would be sufficiently strong and the obligations of all states under such arrangements sufficiently far-reaching as to assure peace and the just settlement of differences in a disarmed world.
DECLARATION ON DISARMAMENT
THE UNITED STATES PROGRAM
FOR GENERAL AND COMPLETE DISARMAMENT
IN A PEACEFUL WORLD
The Nations of the world,
Conscious of the crisis in human history produced by the revolutionary development of modern weapons within a world divided by serious ideological differences;
Determined to save present and succeeding generations from the scourge of war and the dangers and burdens of the arms race and to create conditions in which all peoples can strive freely and peacefully to fulfill their basic aspirations;
Declare their goal to be: A free, secure, and peaceful world of independent states adhering to common standards of justice and international conduct and subjecting the use of force to the rule of law; a world where adjustment to change takes place in accordance with the principles of the United Nations; a world where there shall be a permanent state of general and complete disarmament under effective international control and where the resources of nations shall be devoted to man's material, cultural, and spiritual advance;
1. The disbanding of all national armed forces and the prohibition of their reestablishment in any form whatsoever other than those required to preserve internal order and for contributions to a United Nations Peace Force;
2. The elimination from national arsenals of all armaments, including all weapons of mass destruction and the means for their delivery, other than those required for a United Nations Peace Force and for maintaining internal order;
3. The establishment and effective operation of an International Disarmament Organization within the framework of the United Nations to ensure compliance at all times with all disarmament obligations;
4. The institution of effective means for the enforcement of international agreements, for the settlement of disputes, and for the maintenance of peace in accordance with the principles of the United Nations.
Call on the negotiating states:
1. To develop the outline program set forth below into an agreed plan for general and complete disarmament and to continue their efforts without interruption until the whole program has been achieved;
2. To this end to seek to attain the widest possible area of agreement at the earliest possible date;
3. Also to seek - without prejudice to progress on the disarmament program - agreement on those immediate measures that would contribute to the common security of nations and that could facilitate and form a part of that program.
Affirm that disarmament negotiations should be guided by the following principles:
1. Disarmament shall take place as rapidly as possible until it is completed in stages containing balanced, phased and safeguarded measures, with each measure and stage to be carried out in an agreed period of time.
2. Compliance with all disarmament obligations shall be effectively verified from their entry into force. Verification arrangements shall be instituted progressively and in such a manner as to verify not only that agreed limitations or reductions take place but also that retained armed forces and armaments do not exceed agreed levels at any stage.
3. Disarmament shall take place in a manner that will not affect adversely the security of any state, whether or not a party to an international agreement or treaty.
4. As states relinquish their arms, the United Nations shall be progressively strengthened in order to improve its capacity to assure international security and the peaceful settlement of differences as well as to facilitate the development of international cooperation in common tasks for the benefit of mankind.
5. Transition from one stage of disarmament to the next shall take place as soon as all the measures in the preceding stage have been carried out and effective verification is continuing and as soon as the arrangements that have been agreed to be necessary for the next stage have been instituted.
Agree upon the following outline program for achieving general and complete disarmament:
A. To Establish an International Disarmament Organization:
• (a) An International Disarmament Organization (IDO) shall be established within the framework of the United Nations upon entry into force of the agreement. Its functions shall be expanded progressively as required for the effective verification of the disarmament program.
• (b) The IDO shall have:
1. a General Conference of all the parties;
2. a Commission consisting of representatives of all the major powers as permanent members and certain other states on a rotating basis; and
3. an Administrator who will administer the Organization subject to the direction of the Commission and who will have the authority, staff, and finances adequate to assure effective impartial implementation of the functions of the Organization.
• (c) The IDO shall:
1. ensure compliance with the obligations undertaken by verifying the execution of measures agreed upon;
2. assist the states in developing the details of agreed further verification and disarmament measures;
3. provide for the establishment of such bodies as may be necessary for working out the details of further measures provided for in the program and for such other expert study groups as may be required to give continuous study to the problems of disarmament;
4. receive reports on the progress of disarmament and verification arrangements and determine the transition from one stage to the next.
B. To Reduce Armed Forces and Armaments:
• (a) Force levels shall be limited to 2.I million each for the U.S. and U.S.S.R. and to appropriate levels not exceeding 2.1 million each for all other militarily significant states. Reductions to the agreed levels will proceed by equitable, proportionate, and verified steps.
• (b) Levels of armaments of prescribed types shall be reduced by equitable and balanced steps. The reductions shall be accomplished by transfers of armaments to depots supervised by the IDO. When, at specified periods during the Stage I reduction process, the states party to the agreement have agreed that the armaments and armed forces are at prescribed levels, the armaments in depots shall be destroyed or converted to peaceful uses.
• (c) The production of agreed types of armaments shall be limited.
• (d) A Chemical, Biological, Radiological (CBR) Experts Commission shall be established within the IDO for the purpose of examining and reporting on the feasibility and means for accomplishing the verifiable reduction and eventual elimination of CBR weapons stockpiles and the halting of their production.
C. To Contain and Reduce the Nuclear Threat:
• (a) States that have not acceded to a treaty effectively prohibiting the testing of nuclear weapons shall do so.
• (b) The production of fissionable materials for use in weapons shall be stopped.
• (c) Upon the cessation of production of fissionable materials for use in weapons, agreed initial quantities of fissionable materials from past production shall be transferred to non-weapons purposes.
• (d) Any fissionable materials transferred between countries for peaceful uses of nuclear energy shall be subject to appropriate safeguards to be developed in agreement with the IAEA.
• (e) States owning nuclear weapons shall not relinquish control of such weapons to any nation not owning them and shall not transmit to any such nation information or material necessary for their manufacture. States not owning nuclear weapons shall not manufacture such weapons, attempt to obtain control of such weapons belonging to other states, or seek or receive information or materials necessary for their manufacture.
• (f) A Nuclear Experts Commission consisting of representatives of the nuclear states shall be established within the IDO for the purpose of examining and reporting on the feasibility and means for accomplishing the verified reduction and eventual elimination of nuclear weapons stockpiles.
D. To Reduce Strategic Nuclear Weapons Delivery Vehicles:
• (a) Strategic nuclear weapons delivery vehicles in specified categories and agreed types of weapons designed to counter such vehicles shall be reduced to agreed levels by equitable and balanced steps. The reduction shall be accomplished in each step by transfers to depots supervised by the IDO of vehicles that are in excess of levels agreed upon for each step. At specified periods during the Stage I reduction process, the vehicles that have been placed under supervision of the IDO shall be destroyed or converted to peaceful uses.
• (b) Production of agreed categories of strategic nuclear weapons delivery vehicles and agreed types of weapons designed to counter such vehicles shall be discontinued or limited.
• (c) Testing of agreed categories of strategic nuclear weapons delivery vehicles and agreed types of weapons designed to counter such vehicles shall be limited or halted.
E. To Promote the Peaceful Use of Outer Space:
• (a) The placing into orbit or stationing in outer space of weapons capable c,f producing mass destruction shall be prohibited.
• (b) States shall give advance notification to participating states and to the IDO of launchings of space vehicles and missiles, together with the track of the vehicle.
F. To Reduce the Risks of War by Accident, Miscalculation, and Surprise Attack:
• (a) States shall give advance notification to the participating states and to the IDO of major military movements and maneuvers, on a scale as may be agreed, which might give rise to misinterpretation or cause alarm and induce countermeasures. The notification shall include the geographic areas to be used and the nature, scale and time span of the event.
• (b) There shall be established observation posts at such locations as major ports, railway centers, motor highways, and air bases to report on concentrations and movements of military forces.
• (c) There shall also be established such additional inspection arrangements to reduce the danger of surprise attack as may be agreed.
• (d) An international commission shall be established immediately within the IDO to examine and make recommendations on the possibility of further measures to reduce the risks of nuclear war by accident, miscalculation, or failure of communication.
G. To Keep the Peace:
• (a)States shall reaffirm their obligations under the U.N. Charter to refrain from the threat or use of any type of armed force including nuclear, conventional, or CBR - contrary to the principles of the U.N. Charter.
• (b) States shall agree to refrain from indirect aggression and subversion against any country.
• (c) States shall use all appropriate processes for the peaceful settlement of disputes and shall seek within the United Nations further arrangements for the peaceful settlement of international disputes and for the codification and progressive development of international law.
• (d) States shall develop arrangements in Stage I for the establishment in Stage II of a U.N. Peace Force.
• (e) A U.N. peace observation group shall be staffed with a standing cadre of observers who could be dispatched to investigate any situation which might constitute a threat to or breach of the peace
A. International Disarmament Organization:
• The powers and responsibilities of the IDO shall be progressively enlarged in order to give it the capabilities to verify the measures undertaken in Stage II.
B. To Further Reduce Armed Forces and Armaments:
• (a) Levels of forces for the U.S., U.S.S.R., and other militarily significant states shall be further reduced by substantial amounts to agreed levels in equitable and balanced steps.
• (b) Levels of armaments of prescribed types shall be further reduced by equitable and balanced steps. The reduction shall be accomplished by transfers of armaments to depots supervised by the IDO. When, at specified periods during the Stage II reduction process, the parties have agreed that the armaments and armed forces are at prescribed levels, the armaments in depots shall be destroyed or converted to peaceful uses.
• (c) There shall be further agreed restrictions on the production of armaments.
• (d) Agreed military bases and facilities wherever they are located shall be dismantled or converted to peaceful uses.
• (e) Depending upon the findings of the Experts Commission on CBR weapons, the production of CBR weapons shall be halted, existing stocks progressively reduced, and the resulting excess quantities destroyed or converted to peaceful uses.
C. To Further Reduce the Nuclear Threat:
• Stocks of nuclear weapons shall be progressively reduced to the minimum levels which can be agreed upon as a result of the findings of the Nuclear Experts Commission; the resulting excess of fissionable material shall be transferred to peaceful purposes.
D. To Further Reduce Strategic Nuclear Weapons Delivery Vehicles:
• Further reductions in the stocks of strategic nuclear weapons delivery vehicles and agreed types of weapons designed to counter such vehicles shall be carried out in accordance with the procedure outlined in Stage I.
E. To Keep the Peace:
During Stage II, states shall develop further the peace-keeping processes of the United Nations, to the end that the United Nations can effectively in Stage III deter or suppress any threat or use of force in violation of the purposes and principles of the United Nations:
• (a) States shall agree upon strengthening the structure, authority, and operation of the United Nations so as to assure that the United Nations will be able effectively to protect states against threats to or breaches of the peace.
• (b) The U.N. Peace Force shall be established and progressively strengthened.
• (c) States shall also agree upon further improvements and developments in rules of international conduct and in processes for peaceful settlement of disputes and differences.
By the time Stage II has been completed, the confidence produced through a verified disarmament program, the acceptance of rules of peaceful international behavior, and the development of strengthened international peace-keeping processes within the framework of the U.N. should have reached a point where the states of the world can move forward to Stage III. In Stage III progressive controlled disarmament and continuously developing principles and procedures of international law would proceed to a point where no state would have the military power to challenge the progressively strengthened U.N. Peace Force and all international disputes would be settled according to the agreed principles of international conduct.
The progressive steps to be taken during the final phase of the disarmament program would be directed toward the attainment of a world in which:
• (a) States would retain only those forces, non-nuclear armaments, and establishments required for the purpose of maintaining internal order; they would also support and provide agreed manpower for a U.N Peace Force.
• (b) The U.N. Peace Force, equipped with agreed types and quantities of armaments, would be fully functioning.
• (c) The manufacture of armaments would be prohibited except for those of agreed types and quantities to be used by the U.N. Peace Force and those required to maintain internal order. All other armaments would be destroyed or converted to peaceful purposes.
• (d) The peace-keeping capabilities of the United Nations would be sufficiently strong and the obligations of all states under such arrangements sufficiently far-reaching as to assure peace and the just settlement of differences in a disarmed world.
U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 11161 O-609147